(2020). STING and IRF3 in stromal fibroblasts enable sensing of genomic stress in cancer cells to undermine oncolytic viral therapy. Nature cell biology,
(2018). A Unidirectional Transition from Migratory to Perivascular Macrophage Is Required for Tumor Cell Intravasation. Cell reports,
(2017). A mechanically active heterotypic E-cadherin/N-cadherin adhesion enables fibroblasts to drive cancer cell invasion. Nature cell biology,
(2016). Macrophage Infiltration and Alternative Activation during Wound Healing Promote MEK1-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis. Cancer research,
Macrophages are essential for the progression and maintenance of many cancers, but their role during the earliest stages of tumor formation is unclear. To test this, we used a previously described transgenic mouse model of wound-induced skin tumorigenesis, in which expression of constitutively active MEK1 in differentiating epidermal cells results in chronic inflammation (InvEE mice). Upon wounding, the number of epidermal and dermal monocytes and macrophages increased in wild-type and InvEE skin, but the increase was greater, more rapid, and more sustained in InvEE skin. Macrophage ablation reduced tumor incidence. Furthermore, bioluminescent imaging in live mice to monitor macrophage flux at wound sites revealed that macrophage accumulation was predictive of tumor formation; wounds with the greatest number of macrophages at day 5 went on to develop tumors. Gene expression profiling of flow-sorted monocytes, macrophages, and T cells from InvEE and wild-type skin showed that as wound healing progressed, InvEE macrophages altered their phenotype. Throughout wound healing and after wound closure, InvEE macrophages demonstrated sustained upregulation of several markers implicated in alternative macrophage activation including arginase-1 (ARG1) and mannose receptor (CD206). Notably, inhibition of ARG1 activity significantly reduced tumor formation and epidermal proliferation in vivo, whereas addition of L-arginase to cultured keratinocytes stimulated proliferation. We conclude that macrophages play a key role in early, inflammation-mediated skin tumorigenesis, with mechanistic evidence suggesting that ARG1 secretion drives tumor development by stimulating epidermal cell proliferation. These findings highlight the importance of cancer immunotherapies aiming to polarize tumor-associated macrophages toward an antitumor phenotype. Cancer Res; 76(4); 805–17. ©2016 AACR..
(2015). Real-Time Imaging Reveals Local, Transient Vascular Permeability, and Tumor Cell Intravasation Stimulated by TIE2hi Macrophage–Derived VEGFA. Cancer discovery,
Dissemination of tumor cells is an essential step in metastasis. Direct contact between a macrophage, mammalian-enabled (MENA)–overexpressing tumor cell, and endothelial cell [Tumor MicroEnvironment of Metastasis (TMEM)] correlates with metastasis in breast cancer patients. Here we show, using intravital high-resolution two-photon microscopy, that transient vascular permeability and tumor cell intravasation occur simultaneously and exclusively at TMEM. The hyperpermeable nature of tumor vasculature is described as spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Using real-time imaging, we observed that vascular permeability is transient, restricted to the TMEM, and required for tumor cell dissemination. VEGFA signaling from TIE2hi TMEM macrophages causes local loss of vascular junctions, transient vascular permeability, and tumor cell intravasation, demonstrating a role for the TMEM within the primary mammary tumor. These data provide insight into the mechanism of tumor cell intravasation and vascular permeability in breast cancer, explaining the value of TMEM density as a predictor of distant metastatic recurrence in patients.
Significance: Tumor vasculature is abnormal with increased permeability. Here, we show that VEGFA signaling from TIE2hi TMEM macrophages results in local, transient vascular permeability and tumor cell intravasation. These data provide evidence for the mechanism underlying the association of TMEM with distant metastatic recurrence, offering a rationale for therapies targeting TMEM. Cancer Discov; 5(9); 932–43. ©2015 AACR.
See related commentary by Kadioglu and De Palma, p. 906.
This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 893.
(2015). Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer. Nature communications,
(2012). Epithelial stem cells, wound healing and cancer. Nature reviews cancer,
(2012). Upregulation of CD26 expression in epithelial cells and stromal cells during wound-induced skin tumour formation. Oncogene,
van Rooijen, N.
(2010). Tumor formation initiated by nondividing epidermal cells via an inflammatory infiltrate. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences,
In mammalian epidermis, integrin expression is normally confined to the basal proliferative layer that contains stem cells. However, in epidermal hyperproliferative disorders and tumors, integrins are also expressed by suprabasal cells, with concomitant up-regulation of Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In transgenic mice, expression of activated MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1) in the suprabasal, nondividing, differentiated cell layers (InvEE transgenics) results in epidermal hyperproliferation and skin inflammation. We now demonstrate that wounding induces benign tumors (papillomas and keratoacanthomas) in InvEE mice. By generating chimeras between InvEE mice and mice that lack the MEK1 transgene, we demonstrate that differentiating, nondividing cells that express MEK1 stimulate adjacent transgene-negative cells to divide and become incorporated into the tumor mass. Dexamethasone treatment inhibits tumor formation, suggesting that inflammation is involved. InvEE skin and tumors express high levels of IL1α; treatment with an IL1 receptor antagonist delays tumor onset and reduces incidence. Depletion of γδ T cells and macrophages also reduces tumor incidence. Because a hallmark of cancer is uncontrolled proliferation, it is widely assumed that tumors arise only from dividing cells. In contrast, our studies show that differentiated epidermal cells can initiate tumor formation without reacquiring the ability to divide and that they do so by triggering an inflammatory infiltrate..
(2009). Stem cells are dispensable for lung homeostasis but restore airways after injury. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences,
Local tissue stem cells have been described in airways of the lung but their contribution to normal epithelial maintenance is currently unknown. We therefore developed aggregation chimera mice and a whole-lung imaging method to determine the relative contributions of progenitor (Clara) and bronchiolar stem cells to epithelial maintenance and repair. In normal and moderately injured airways chimeric patches were small in size and not associated with previously described stem cell niches. This finding suggested that single, randomly distributed progenitor cells maintain normal epithelial homeostasis. In contrast we found that repair following severe lung injury resulted in the generation of rare, large clonal cell patches that were associated with stem cell niches. This study provides evidence that epithelial stem cells are dispensable for normal airway homeostasis. We also demonstrate that stem cell activation and robust clonal cellular expansion occur only during repair from severe lung injury..
(2007). Visualizing the Dynamics of EGFR Activity and Antiglioma Therapies In vivo. Cancer research,
Many altered pathways in cancer cells depend on growth factor receptors. In primary malignant gliomas, the amplification/alteration of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to play a significant role in enhancing glioma burden. In an effort to dissect the role of EGFR expression in glioma progression in vivo and evaluate targeted therapies for gliomas, we have genetically engineered glioma cells to visualize the dynamics of EGFR and targeted therapies in real time in vivo. Using engineered lentiviral vectors bearing fusions between EGFR and its exon 2 to 7 deleted variant (EGFRvIII) with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Renilla luciferase (Rluc), we show that there is a direct correlation between EGFR expression and glioma cell proliferation in the initial stages of glioma progression. To monitor and evaluate EGFR-targeted therapies, we have engineered (a) short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) and (b) clinically used monoclonal antibody, cetuximab. Using EGFR-GFP-Rluc/firefly luciferase (Fluc)-DsRed2 glioma model, we show that both shRNAs and cetuximab result in a considerable reduction in glioma cell proliferation in culture and glioma burden in vivo that can be monitored in real time at a cellular resolution. This study serves as a template to follow the role of growth factor receptor expression in tumor progression and to image therapeutic efficacy of targeted therapies in cancer. [Cancer Res 2007;67(15):7335–42].
E A Chessum, N.
van Montfort, R.
Investigating the phosphinic acid tripeptide mimetic DG013A as a tool compound inhibitor of the M1-aminopeptidase ERAP1. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters,
ERAP1 is a zinc-dependent M1-aminopeptidase that trims lipophilic amino acids from the N-terminus of peptides. Owing to its importance in the processing of antigens and regulation of the adaptive immune response, dysregulation of the highly polymorphic ERAP1 has been implicated in autoimmune disease and cancer. To test this hypothesis and establish the role of ERAP1 in these disease areas, high affinity, cell permeable and selective chemical probes are essential. DG013A 1, is a phosphinic acid tripeptide mimetic inhibitor with reported low nanomolar affinity for ERAP1. However, this chemotype is a privileged structure for binding to various metal-dependent peptidases and contains a highly charged phosphinic acid moiety, so it was unclear whether it would display the high selectivity and passive permeability required for a chemical probe. Therefore, we designed a new stereoselective route to synthesize a library of DG013A 1 analogues to determine the suitability of this compound as a cellular chemical probe to validate ERAP1 as a drug discovery target..