(2019). EXD2 Protects Stressed Replication Forks and Is Required for Cell Viability in the Absence of BRCA1/2. Molecular cell,
Accurate DNA replication is essential to preserve genomic integrity and prevent chromosomal instability-associated diseases including cancer. Key to this process is the cells' ability to stabilize and restart stalled replication forks. Here, we show that the EXD2 nuclease is essential to this process. EXD2 recruitment to stressed forks suppresses their degradation by restraining excessive fork regression. Accordingly, EXD2 deficiency leads to fork collapse, hypersensitivity to replication inhibitors, and genomic instability. Impeding fork regression by inactivation of SMARCAL1 or removal of RECQ1's inhibition in EXD2-/- cells restores efficient fork restart and genome stability. Moreover, purified EXD2 efficiently processes substrates mimicking regressed forks. Thus, this work identifies a mechanism underpinned by EXD2's nuclease activity, by which cells balance fork regression with fork restoration to maintain genome stability. Interestingly, from a clinical perspective, we discover that EXD2's depletion is synthetic lethal with mutations in BRCA1/2, implying a non-redundant role in replication fork protection..
(2018). SAMHD1 acts at stalled replication forks to prevent interferon induction. Nature,
(2017). Structural Insight into BLM Recognition by TopBP1. Structure,
(2016). EXD2 promotes homologous recombination by facilitating DNA end resection. Nature cell biology,
de Silva, D.
(2016). Mutations in CDC45 , Encoding an Essential Component of the Pre-initiation Complex, Cause Meier-Gorlin Syndrome and Craniosynostosis. The american journal of human genetics,
(2016). EXD2 - a new player joins the DSB resection team. Cell cycle,
(2015). BOD1L Is Required to Suppress Deleterious Resection of Stressed Replication Forks. Molecular cell,
Lopez Martinez, D.
(2015). The Fanconi Anemia Pathway Maintains Genome Stability by Coordinating Replication and Transcription. Molecular cell,
(2015). TOPBP1 recruits TOP2A to ultra-fine anaphase bridges to aid in their resolution. Nature communications,
During mitosis, sister chromatids must be faithfully segregated to ensure that daughter cells receive one copy of each chromosome. However, following replication they often remain entangled. Topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) has been proposed to resolve such entanglements, but the mechanisms governing TOP2A recruitment to these structures remain poorly understood. Here, we identify TOPBP1 as a novel interactor of TOP2A, and reveal that it is required for TOP2A recruitment to ultra-fine anaphase bridges (UFBs) in mitosis. The C-terminal region of TOPBP1 interacts with TOP2A, and TOPBP1 recruitment to UFBs requires its BRCT domain 5. Depletion of TOPBP1 leads to accumulation of UFBs, the majority of which arise from centromeric loci. Accordingly, expression of a TOPBP1 mutant that is defective in TOP2A binding phenocopies TOP2A depletion. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into how TOP2A promotes resolution of UFBs during mitosis, and highlights a pivotal role for TOPBP1 in this process..
(2015). TopBP1 interacts with BLM to maintain genome stability but is dispensable for preventing BLM degradation. Molecular cell,
The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM and topoisomerase-IIβ-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) are key regulators of genome stability. It was recently proposed that BLM phosphorylation on Ser338 mediates its interaction with TopBP1, to protect BLM from ubiquitylation and degradation (Wang et al., 2013). Here, we show that the BLM-TopBP1 interaction does not involve Ser338 but instead requires BLM phosphorylation on Ser304. Furthermore, we establish that disrupting this interaction does not markedly affect BLM stability. However, BLM-TopBP1 binding is important for maintaining genome integrity, because in its absence cells display increased sister chromatid exchanges, replication origin firing and chromosomal aberrations. Therefore, the BLM-TopBP1 interaction maintains genome stability not by controlling BLM protein levels, but via another as-yet undetermined mechanism. Finally, we identify critical residues that mediate interactions between TopBP1 and MDC1, and between BLM and TOP3A/RMI1/RMI2. Taken together, our findings provide molecular insights into a key tumor suppressor and genome stability network..
MUS81 nuclease activity is essential for replication stress tolerance and chromosome segregation in BRCA2-deficient cells. Nature communications,
Failure to restart replication forks stalled at genomic regions that are difficult to replicate or contain endogenous DNA lesions is a hallmark of BRCA2 deficiency. The nucleolytic activity of MUS81 endonuclease is required for replication fork restart under replication stress elicited by exogenous treatments. Here we investigate whether MUS81 could similarly facilitate DNA replication in the context of BRCA2 abrogation. Our results demonstrate that replication fork progression in BRCA2-deficient cells requires MUS81. Failure to complete genome replication and defective checkpoint surveillance enables BRCA2-deficient cells to progress through mitosis with under-replicated DNA, which elicits severe chromosome interlinking in anaphase. MUS81 nucleolytic activity is required to activate compensatory DNA synthesis during mitosis and to resolve mitotic interlinks, thus facilitating chromosome segregation. We propose that MUS81 provides a mechanism of replication stress tolerance, which sustains survival of BRCA2-deficient cells and can be exploited therapeutically through development of specific inhibitors of MUS81 nuclease activity..